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Agency Copyright Notice. Introduction :: Liechtenstein. Background : This entry usually highlights major historic events and current issues and may include a statement about one or two key future trends.

liechtenstein country studies a brief comprehensive study of liechtenstein Manual

Occupied by both French and Russian troops during the Napoleonic Wars, it became a sovereign state in and joined the German Confederation in Liechtenstein became fully independent in when the Confederation dissolved. Until the end of World War I, it was closely tied to Austria, but the economic devastation caused by that conflict forced Liechtenstein to enter into a customs and monetary union with Switzerland. Since World War II in which Liechtenstein remained neutral , the country's low taxes have spurred outstanding economic growth. In , shortcomings in banking regulatory oversight resulted in concerns about the use of financial institutions for money laundering.

However, Liechtenstein implemented anti-money laundering legislation and a Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty with the US that went into effect in Geography :: Liechtenstein. Location : This entry identifies the country's regional location, neighboring countries, and adjacent bodies of water. Central Europe, between Austria and Switzerland.

Geographic coordinates : This entry includes rounded latitude and longitude figures for the centroid or center point of a country expressed in degrees and minutes; it is based on the locations provided in the Geographic Names Server GNS , maintained by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency on behalf of the US Board on Geographic Names. Map references : This entry includes the name of the Factbook reference map on which a country may be found.

Note that boundary representations on these maps are not necessarily authoritative. The entry on Geographic coordinates may be helpful in finding some smaller countries. Area : This entry includes three subfields. Area - comparative : This entry provides an area comparison based on total area equivalents. Most entities are compared with the entire US or one of the 50 states based on area measurements revised provided by the US Bureau of the Census. Land boundaries : This entry contains the total length of all land boundaries and the individual lengths for each of the contiguous border countries.

When available, official lengths published by national statistical agencies are used. Because surveying methods may differ, country border lengths reported by contiguous countries may differ.


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Coastline : This entry gives the total length of the boundary between the land area including islands and the sea. Maritime claims : This entry includes the following claims, the definitions of which are excerpted from the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea UNCLOS , which alone contains the full and definitive descriptions: territorial sea - the sovereignty of a coastal state extends beyond its land territory and internal waters to an adjacent belt of sea, described as the territorial sea in the UNCLOS Part II ; this sovereignty extends to the air space over the territorial sea as well as its underlying s.

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Climate : This entry includes a brief description of typical weather regimes throughout the year; in the Word entry only, it includes four subfields that describe climate extremes:ten driest places on earth average annual precipitation describes the annual average precipitation measured in both millimeters and inches for selected countries with climate extremes.

Terrain : This entry contains a brief description of the topography. Elevation : This entry includes the mean elevation and elevation extremes, lowest point and highest point. Natural resources : This entry lists a country's mineral, petroleum, hydropower, and other resources of commercial importance, such as rare earth elements REEs. In general, products appear only if they make a significant contribution to the economy, or are likely to do so in the future. Land use : This entry contains the percentage shares of total land area for three different types of land use: agricultural land, forest, and other; agricultural land is further divided into arable land - land cultivated for crops like wheat, maize, and rice that are replanted after each harvest, permanent crops - land cultivated for crops like citrus, coffee, and rubber that are not replanted after each harvest, and includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, and permane.

Irrigated land : This entry gives the number of square kilometers of land area that is artificially supplied with water.


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Population distribution : This entry provides a summary description of the population dispersion within a country. While it may suggest population density, it does not provide density figures. Natural hazards : This entry lists potential natural disasters. For countries where volcanic activity is common, a volcanism subfield highlights historically active volcanoes.

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Environment - current issues : This entry lists the most pressing and important environmental problems. The following terms and abbreviations are used throughout the entry: Acidification - the lowering of soil and water pH due to acid precipitation and deposition usually through precipitation; this process disrupts ecosystem nutrient flows and may kill freshwater fish and plants dependent on more neutral or alkaline conditions see acid rain.

Acid rain - characterized as containing harmful levels of sulfur dioxi. Environment - international agreements : This entry separates country participation in international environmental agreements into two levels - party to and signed, but not ratified. Agreements are listed in alphabetical order by the abbreviated form of the full name. Geography - note : This entry includes miscellaneous geographic information of significance not included elsewhere.

People and Society :: Liechtenstein.

Population : This entry gives an estimate from the US Bureau of the Census based on statistics from population censuses, vital statistics registration systems, or sample surveys pertaining to the recent past and on assumptions about future trends. The total population presents one overall measure of the potential impact of the country on the world and within its region. Note: Starting with the Factbook, demographic estimates for some countries mostly African have explicitly taken into account t.

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Nationality : This entry provides the identifying terms for citizens - noun and adjective. Ethnic groups : This entry provides an ordered listing of ethnic groups starting with the largest and normally includes the percent of total population.

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Languages : This entry provides a listing of languages spoken in each country and specifies any that are official national or regional languages. When data is available, the languages spoken in each country are broken down according to the percent of the total population speaking each language as a first language.

For those countries without available data, languages are listed in rank order based on prevalence, starting with the most-spoken language. German Religions : This entry is an ordered listing of religions by adherents starting with the largest group and sometimes includes the percent of total population. The core characteristics and beliefs of the world's major religions are described below. Baha'i - Founded by Mirza Husayn-Ali known as Baha'u'llah in Iran in , Baha'i faith emphasizes monotheism and believes in one eternal transcendent God.

Its guiding focus is to encourage the unity of all peoples on the earth so that justice and peace m. Roman Catholic official Age structure : This entry provides the distribution of the population according to age. Information is included by sex and age group as follows: years children , years early working age , years prime working age , years mature working age , 65 years and over elderly.

The age structure of a population affects a nation's key socioeconomic issues. Countries with young populations high percentage under age 15 need to invest more in schools, while countries with older population. Image Description. This is the population pyramid for Liechtenstein. A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development.

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The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top. The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends. For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page under the References tab.

Median age : This entry is the age that divides a population into two numerically equal groups; that is, half the people are younger than this age and half are older. It is a single index that summarizes the age distribution of a population. Currently, the median age ranges from a low of about 15 in Niger and Uganda to 40 or more in several European countries and Japan. See the entry for "Age structure" for the importance of a young versus an older age structure and, by implication, a low versus a high.


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Population growth rate : The average annual percent change in the population, resulting from a surplus or deficit of births over deaths and the balance of migrants entering and leaving a country. The rate may be positive or negative. The growth rate is a factor in determining how great a burden would be imposed on a country by the changing needs of its people for infrastructure e.

Rapid population growth can be seen as. Birth rate : This entry gives the average annual number of births during a year per 1, persons in the population at midyear; also known as crude birth rate. The birth rate is usually the dominant factor in determining the rate of population growth. It depends on both the level of fertility and the age structure of the population. Death rate : This entry gives the average annual number of deaths during a year per 1, population at midyear; also known as crude death rate. The death rate, while only a rough indicator of the mortality situation in a country, accurately indicates the current mortality impact on population growth.

This indicator is significantly affected by age distribution, and most countries will eventually show a rise in the overall death rate, in spite of continued decline in mortality at all ages, as declining. Net migration rate : This entry includes the figure for the difference between the number of persons entering and leaving a country during the year per 1, persons based on midyear population. An excess of persons entering the country is referred to as net immigration e. The net migration rate indicates the contribution of migration to the overall level of population chan.

Urbanization : This entry provides two measures of the degree of urbanization of a population. The first, urban population, describes the percentage of the total population living in urban areas, as defined by the country. The second, rate of urbanization, describes the projected average rate of change of the size of the urban population over the given period of time.

For example. Major urban areas - population : This entry provides the population of the capital and up to six major cities defined as urban agglomerations with populations of at least , people. An urban agglomeration is defined as comprising the city or town proper and also the suburban fringe or thickly settled territory lying outside of, but adjacent to, the boundaries of the city.