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Our study reveals that the increased COX 2 expression has an impact on the aging process and suggests that modulation of COX 2 and its downstream signaling may be an approach for intervention of age-related disorders. Cyclooxygenase-2 COX - 2 is an important mediator of inflammation in stress and disease states. Recent attention has focused on the role of COX - 2 in human heart failure and diseases, due to the finding that highly specific COX - 2 inhibitors i. Vioxx increased the risk of myocardial infarction and stroke in chronic users.

However, the specific impact of COX - 2 expression in the intact heart remains to be determined. We report here the development of a transgenic mouse model, using a loxP-Cre approach, that displays robust COX - 2 overexpression and subsequent prostaglandin synthesis specifically in ventricular myocytes. Histological, functional and molecular analyses showed that ventricular myocyte specific COX - 2 overexpression led to cardiac hypertrophy and fetal gene marker activation, but with preserved cardiac function.

Therefore, specific induction of COX - 2 and prostaglandin in vivo is sufficient to induce compensated hypertrophy and molecular remodeling.

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COX - 2 expression and outcome in canine nasal carcinomas treated with hypofractionated radiotherapy. The expression of cyclooxygenase isoform 2 COX - 2 in canine nasal carcinomas has been well documented. COX - 2 expression has proven to be a prognostic factor in several human tumours.

The aims of this study were to assess the correlation between immunohistochemical COX - 2 expression and prognosis using rhinoscopic biopsies from 42 dogs with nasal carcinomas treated with hypofractionated radiotherapy, and to establish a replicable COX - 2 scoring system. Ninety per cent of sections evaluated were COX - 2 positive with a mean score of 6.


Neither COX - 2 expression nor tumour type had a significant correlation with survival. There are likely to be many as yet unidentified variants which contribute to length of survival in dogs with nasal carcinomas. Immunohistochemical COX - 2 expression appears unlikely to be of prognostic significance for canine nasal carcinoma. Published by Oxford University Press.

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For Permissions, please email: journals. Cyclooxygenase-2 COX - 2 plays an important role in lung cancer development and progression. Using streptavidin-agarose pulldown and proteomics assay, we identified and validated Ku80, a dimer of Ku participating in the repair of broken DNA double strands, as a new binding protein of the COX - 2 gene promoter.

Tissue microarray immunohistochemical analysis of lung adenocarcinomas revealed a strong positive correlation between levels of Ku80 and COX - 2 and clinicopathologic variables. Overexpression of Ku80 was associated with poor prognosis in patients with lung cancers.

Diffuse Lung Diseases

We conclude that Ku80 promotes COX - 2 expression and tumor growth and is a potential therapeutic target in lung cancer. COX - 2 overexpression in resected pancreatic head adenocarcinomas correlates with favourable prognosis. Background Overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 COX - 2 has been implicated in oncogenesis and progression of adenocarcinomas of the pancreatic head.

The data on the prognostic importance of COX expression in these tumours is inconsistent and conflicting. We evaluated how COX - 2 overexpression affected overall postoperative survival in pancreatic head adenocarcinomas. COX - 2 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Associations between COX - 2 expression and histopathologic variables including degree of differentiation, histopathologic type of differentiation pancreatobiliary vs.

Unadjusted and adjusted survival analysis was performed. In tumours of pancreatobiliary type of histopathological differentiation, COX - 2 expression did not significantly affect overall patient survival.

Conclusions COX - 2 is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer, ampullary cancer and distal bile duct cancer and confers a survival benefit in all three cancer types. In pancreatic cancer, COX - 2 overexpression is significantly associated with the degree of differentiation and independently predicts a favourable prognosis. Significance of Cox - 2 expression in rectal cancers with or without preoperative radiotherapy.

Purpose: Radiotherapy has reduced local recurrence of rectal cancers, but the result is not satisfactory. Further biologic factors are needed to identify patients for more effective radiotherapy. The patients participated in a rectal cancer trial of preoperative radiotherapy. Conclusion: Cox - 2 expression seemed to be an early event involved in rectal cancer development. Radiotherapy might reduce a rate of local recurrence in the patients with Cox - 2 weakly stained tumors, but not in those with Cox - 2 strongly stained tumors.

The antitumorigenic mechanism of cannabidiol is still controversial. In lung cancer cell lines A, H and primary cells from a patient with lung cancer, cannabidiol elicited decreased viability associated with apoptosis. Molecular docking analysis of known flavonoids as duel COX - 2 inhibitors in the context of cancer.

Cyclooxygenase-2 COX - 2 catalyzed synthesis of prostaglandin E2 and it associates with tumor growth, infiltration, and metastasis in preclinical experiments. Known inhibitors against COX - 2 exhibit toxicity. Therefore, it is of interest to screen natural compounds like flavanoids against COX - 2.

However, this data requires in vitro and in vivo verification for further consideration. The expression of COX - 2 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma NPC and its relationship to clinicopathological features were studied in Tunisian patients. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that COX - 2 protein was strongly detected in tumour cells and the staining was mainly cytoplasmic.

Our result showed a significant association of COX - 2 overexpression with the lymph node involvement, however, no correlation was observed with age, tumour stage, histological type and distant metastasis. Altogether, our data suggests that the COX - 2 is overexpressed in NPC biopsies and that is linked to the lymph node involvement.

Kinetics and docking studies of a COX - 2 inhibitor isolated from Terminalia bellerica fruits. Triphala is an Ayurvedic herbal formulation consisting of equal parts of three myrobalans: Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica and Emblica officinalis. The carboxylate moiety of GA interacts with Arg and Glu Being a small natural product with selective and reversible inhibition of COX - 2 , GA would form a lead molecule for developing potent anti-inflammatory drug candidates. COX - 2 expression in canine anal sac adenocarcinomas and in non-neoplastic canine anal sacs.


Anal sac adenocarcinoma ASAC is a clinically significant canine neoplasm characterized by early lymphatic invasion. Up-regulation of cyclooxygenase isoform 2 COX - 2 has been confirmed in several animal and human neoplastic tissues. The aim of the current study was primarily to evaluate COX - 2 expression in canine ASAC and compare it to COX - 2 expression in non-neoplastic canine anal sac tissue using immunohistochemistry with scoring for percentage positivity and intensity. Twenty-five ASAC samples and 22 normal anal sacs were available for evaluation.

However, while normal anal sac tissue showed strong staining of the ductal epithelial cells, ASAC samples showed staining of the neoplastic glandular epithelial cells, with varying percentage positivity and intensity between ASAC samples. Furthermore, the results indicate that COX - 2 is expressed in ductal epithelial cells of the normal anal sac.

Hyperuricemia is thought to play a role in cardiovascular diseases CVD , including hypertension, coronary artery disease and atherosclerosis. However, exactly how uric acid contributes to these pathologies is unknown.

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An underlying mechanism of inflammatory diseases, such as atherosclerosis, includes enhanced production of cyclooxygenase-2 COX - 2 and superoxide anion. Here, we aimed to examine the effect of uric acid on inflammatory COX - 2 and superoxide anion production and to determine the role of losartan. Primarily cultured vascular smooth muscle cells VSMCs were time and dose-dependently induced by uric acid and COX - 2 and superoxide anion levels were measured. Uric acid elevated COX - 2 levels in a time-dependent manner.

Uric acid also increased superoxide anion level in VSMCs. This is the first study demonstrating losartan's ability to reduce uric-acid-induced COX - 2 elevation. A new series of peptide-like derivatives containing different aromatic amino acids and possessing pharmacophores of COX - 2 inhibitors as SO2Me or N3 attached to the para position of an end phenyl ring was synthesized for evaluation as selective cyclooxygenase-2 COX - 2 inhibitors.

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The synthetic reactions were based on the solid phase peptide synthesis method using Wang resin. One of the analogues, i. Molecular docking study was operated to determine possible binding models of compound 2d to COX - 2 enzyme. The study showed that the p-azido-phenyl fragment of 2d occupied inside the secondary COX - 2 binding site Arg, and His The structure-activity relationships acquired disclosed that compound 2d with 4- azido phenyl group as pharmacophore and histidine as amino acid gives the essential geometry to provide inhibition of the COX - 2 enzyme with high selectivity.

Compound 2d can be a good candidate for the development of new hits of COX - 2 inhibitors. Smad3 mutant mice develop colon cancer with overexpression of COX - 2. Colon cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-associated mortality in human populations. The aim of the present study was to identify the role of cyclooxygenase-2 COX - 2 in Smad3 mutant mice, which are known to develop colon cancer.

Immunohistochemistry with COX - 2 antibody was performed throughout this experiment and the data was validated and cross-checked with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction RT-PCR. The results of the present study demonstrated a link between the Smad3 mutant mice, colon cancer and COX - 2. In addition, the overexpression pattern of COX - 2 in Smad3 mutant mice that develop colon cancer was identified. Immunohistochemical expression of cyclooxygenase-2 COX - 2 in oral nevi and melanoma.

Cyclooxygenase-2 COX - 2 catalyses the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin, and its overexpression has been demonstrated in different malignant tumors, including cutaneous melanoma. However, no data about the expression of this protein in oral melanocytic lesions are available to date. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of COX - 2 in oral nevi and melanomas, comparing the results with correspondent cutaneous lesions.

COX - 2 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 49 oral melanocytic lesions, including 36 intramucosal nevi and 13 primary oral melanomas, and in four cutaneous nevi and eight melanomas. All cases of oral and cutaneous melanomas were positive for COX - 2. On the other hand, all oral and cutaneous melanocytic nevi were negative. COX - 2 is highly positive in oral melanomas and negative in oral nevi and might represent a useful marker to distinguish melanocytic lesions of the oral cavity.